Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

What is Autism?

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a range of complex neurodevelopment disorder caused by abnormalities in the brain.  The autism/ASD spectrum is very board.

The variety of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses vary in the severity of the individual symptoms. It varies from classical autism where the child has a delay of speech development to a milder form of autism where the child has no delay in speech development as in the case of Asperger Syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Autism Spectrum Disorder tends to be more common in boys than in girls.

Autism Spectrum Disorder is basically characterized by 3 areas of abnormalities. They are:

  • Social interaction impairments
  • Communication difficulties
  • Repetitive and Stereotyped patterns of behaviour


What causes Autism Spectrum Disorder?

image for ASD 500-543Till date, scientists aren’t certain about what exactly causes Autism Spectrum Disorder. However, researchers have identified that Autism has a strong genetic basisControversies surround other proposed environmental causes, such as heavy metals, pesticides or childhood vaccines. The vaccine hypotheses are biologically implausible and have been dis-proven in scientific studies.

While high percentage of Autism Spectrum Disorder is idiopathic (no medical causes), ASD can also be secondary to a medical condition. Secondary ASD refers to cases associated with medical condition or genetic abnormality. Conditions associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder include:

  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Soto syndrome
  • Tuberous Sclerosis
  • Mitochondrial disorder
  • Other chromosomal abnormalities


Coexisting issues

Autism can coexist with other medical conditions or learning difficulties. Some of the more common coexisting conditions include:

  • Dyslexia
  • Hyperlexia
  • Mental retardation
  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivities Disorder
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder
  • Depression secondary to autism
  • Tourette Syndrome
  • Epilepsy 



Prognosis in a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder depends on a variety of outcomes such as communication skills, cognitive skills, self-care skills and independent living skills.

Studies suggested that a lack of early joint attention and imitation as well as failure to develop functional speech by 5 years of age were predictive of poor outcome.


How can Therapy Alliance SG help?

If you suspect your child is showing one or more of the above mentioned 3 area of abnormalities, do not hesitate to contact us for a no-obligation discussion on your child’s condition with our therapist/specialist before deciding to perform an Autism Test for complete analysis of your child.

Email us any inquiries and we will be most glad to offer our best advice.


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